Answers to Open-Ended Questions

1.      What is the difference between Agile and Predictive project management (PMBOK® Guide for example)?


·         Iterative and incremental approach

·         Emphasizes adaptability and flexibility

·         Values collaboration and customer feedback

·         Focuses on delivering value early and frequently

·         Welcomes changes throughout the project

Predictive (PMBOK® Guide):

·         Linear and sequential approach

·         Emphasizes upfront planning and documentation

·         Values predictability and control

·         Focuses on adhering to a predefined plan

·         Attempts to minimize changes once the project begins

2.      Discuss/explain each of the manifesto values. Go round your team if studying in a group.

The Agile Manifesto values are:

·         Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools:

·         Emphasizes the importance of collaboration, teamwork, and effective communication among team members.

·         Working Software over Comprehensive Documentation:

·         Prioritizes delivering a functional product that meets customer needs over extensive documentation.

·         Customer Collaboration over Contract Negotiation:

·         Encourages active involvement of customers and stakeholders throughout the project, fostering feedback and collaboration.

·         Responding to Change over Following a Plan:

·         Acknowledges that change is inevitable and encourages flexibility and adaptability to address evolving requirements and market conditions.

3.      Expand on each value and principle and improve on any values or principles as you see fit.

Value: Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools

·         Encourages creating an environment that fosters collaboration, trust, and effective communication among team members.

·         Recognizes that people and their interactions drive project success more than relying solely on tools and processes.

Value: Working Software over Comprehensive Documentation

·         Focuses on delivering a tangible, functioning product that provides value to the customer, rather than excessive documentation that may not directly contribute to the end result.

·         However, it’s important to note that documentation necessary for understanding, maintaining, and complying with regulations should still be addressed.

Value: Customer Collaboration over Contract Negotiation

·         Emphasizes the importance of involving customers and stakeholders throughout the project to gather feedback, ensure alignment with their needs, and foster a collaborative relationship.

·         This value can be extended to include effective engagement with end-users and incorporating user feedback during development.

Value: Responding to Change over Following a Plan

·         Recognizes that change is inevitable, and projects should be adaptable to address new information, evolving requirements, and market dynamics.

·         However, maintaining a baseline plan and controlling changes within reasonable bounds is still essential for managing scope, resources, and expectations.

4.      What are the differences between how Agile handles the 10 knowledge areas vs. PMBOK® Guide? Discuss all aspects of traditional project management through an Agile lens (Integration, Scope, Schedule, Cost, Quality, Resources, Communications, Risk, Procurement, and Stakeholder Management).

Agile Approach:

·         Integration: Encourages the team to take ownership of integrating all the project’s moving parts. Not just the project manager! Also encourages iterative and incremental integration of deliverables, allowing for frequent testing, feedback, and adjustment.

·         Scope: Prioritizes delivering the most valuable features first, embraces change, and adjusts scope based on customer and stakeholder feedback.

·         Schedule: Uses time-boxed iterations, such as sprints, to provide regular delivery cadence and incorporates feedback to adjust timelines.

·         Cost: Adopts an adaptive approach to manage costs by adjusting scope, prioritizing value, and making informed decisions based on feedback.

·         Quality: Ensures quality by incorporating testing and continuous integration throughout the development process.

·         Resources: Promotes self-organizing teams that collaborate and decide how best to allocate resources to deliver the work.

·         Communications: Emphasizes frequent and transparent communication through face-to-face interactions, collaboration tools, and regular feedback loops.

·         Risk: Identifies and manages risks through continuous monitoring, adaptation, and early identification of risks through continuous monitoring, adaptation, and early identification of potential issues.

·         Procurement: Adapts procurement processes to accommodate iterative and incremental delivery, allowing for flexibility in supplier engagement and contract negotiations. For example, a customer may be allowed to swap out scope items of similar size without penalty.

·         Stakeholder Management: Actively engages stakeholders throughout the project, seeking their feedback and involvement in decision-making processes.


PMBOK® Guide Approach:

These areas could all be performed in repeated cycles throughout the project.

·         Integration: Project manager is solely responsible for Integration. Emphasizes the creation of a comprehensive project management plan and the coordination of various project elements to ensure successful project execution.

·         Scope: Focuses on clearly defining project scope upfront and managing changes through a formal change control process.

·         Schedule: Develops a detailed project schedule based on a sequential approach, with critical path analysis and network diagrams to manage timelines.

·         Cost: Utilizes detailed cost estimation techniques and closely tracks and manages project expenses against the budget.

·         Quality: Implements quality control processes to ensure adherence to defined quality standards and project requirements.

·         Resources: Assigns and manages resources based on a predetermined project plan, with a focus on resource allocation and utilization.

·         Communications: Establishes formal communication channels and documentation to ensure effective information flow and stakeholder engagement.

·         Risk: Identifies and analyzes many risks upfront, develops risk mitigation strategies, and implements risk response plans to manage potential threats.

·         Procurement: Follows structured procurement processes, including contract creation, bidding, and supplier selection, to manage external resources.

·         Stakeholder Management: Identifies and engages stakeholders, develops stakeholder management plans, and manages stakeholder expectations throughout the project.

5.      In traditional project management, what are the biggest issues leading to project failure, risks, and scope creep? How does that translate in Agile?

Traditional Project Management

In traditional project management, common issues leading to project failure, risks, and scope creep include:

·         Lack of adaptability: Traditional approaches often struggle to address changing requirements and market dynamics, leading to misalignment with customer needs.

·         Insufficient stakeholder involvement: Limited stakeholder engagement can result in misunderstood requirements, unmet expectations, and project delays.

·         Inadequate risk management: Traditional methods may not prioritize continuous risk monitoring and timely response, leading to unforeseen challenges and delays.

·         Scope creep: Poor scope management can lead to uncontrolled additions and changes to project scope, impacting timelines, resources, and costs.



In Agile, these issues are addressed differently:

·         Adaptability: Agile embraces change and provides a flexible framework to address evolving requirements, allowing for continuous feedback and adjustment.

·         Stakeholder involvement: Agile promotes active stakeholder engagement throughout the project, ensuring alignment and regular feedback to mitigate misunderstandings.

·         Risk management: Agile incorporates continuous risk monitoring and adapts quickly to address emerging risks, reducing the likelihood of unforeseen challenges.

·         Scope management: Agile employs techniques such as iterative planning, prioritization, and regular feedback loops to manage scope effectively, reducing the impact of scope creep.

6.      Now that you have learned Agile concepts, how could you keep a project on track?

To keep a project on track in an Agile environment, you can:

·         Prioritize and manage the backlog: Continuously prioritize and refine the project backlog, ensuring that the most valuable items are worked on first.

·         Use time-boxed iterations: Implement iterative development cycles, such as sprints, with fixed durations to maintain a regular delivery cadence and manage expectations.

·         Encourage collaboration and transparency: Foster open and frequent communication among team members, stakeholders, and customers to ensure everyone is aligned and aware of project progress.

·         Embrace self-organization: Empower self-organizing teams to make decisions and allocate resources effectively, promoting ownership and accountability.

·         Continuously monitor and adapt: Regularly assess project progress, seek feedback, and adapt plans and strategies accordingly, addressing risks and changes promptly.

·         Foster a culture of learning and improvement: Encourage continuous learning, reflection, and improvement within the team. Promote a safe environment where mistakes are viewed as opportunities for growth and where experimentation and innovation are encouraged.

7.      How does the triple constraint of schedule, cost, and scope translate into an Agile environment? Answers and rationale on a new line.


In Agile, the triple constraint of schedule, cost, and scope is approached differently:

·         Schedule: Agile projects utilize time-boxed iterations, such as sprints, to establish a regular cadence for delivering increments of value. The focus is on maintaining a sustainable pace and delivering the highest-priority items within each iteration. The flexibility to adjust scope allows for adapting to changing timelines while ensuring consistent delivery.

·         Cost: Agile projects emphasize value-driven decision-making. By continuously prioritizing and delivering the most valuable features first, teams can manage costs effectively. The iterative and incremental approach allows for regular cost evaluation, budget adjustments, and the ability to reprioritize work based on evolving needs and constraints.

·         Scope: Agile projects prioritize delivering the most valuable features to customers early and frequently. The scope is adaptable and evolves throughout the project as new information and feedback emerge. Agile teams engage stakeholders and collaborate to define and refine the scope incrementally, ensuring that it aligns with customer needs and business goals.


The rationale behind these adaptations is that Agile recognizes the inherent uncertainties and changes in projects. Instead of attempting to rigidly control all aspects of the project, Agile provides flexibility and focuses on delivering value, enabling teams to respond to feedback and changing requirements effectively. By embracing adaptability and continuous customer collaboration, Agile teams can navigate the triple constraint while delivering products that better meet customer expectations.